HOW SCALES ARE TAUGHT ON GUITAR?

A FIRST GLACE TO HALF-DIMINISHED ARPEGGIOS
8 October 2015
TONAL FUNCTIONS IN THE MAJOR SCALE
21 November 2018
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Hi everybody! Today I’d like to talk a little bit about a subject both elementary and extremely complex: the major scale. Elementary because any consideration we could do on music (from a Western perspective) has to start from here; complex because for the same reason it opens an entire universe that has to be explored. Just think of how much tonal music has been written in 400 years and how we are not yet done!

Based on my experience as a student first and then teacher I’ve had more than once the feeling of this topic being treated in a superficial or even misleading way. I’m thinking mostly to the study of electric guitar since this is my main field, but I’ve seen that the same happens for other instruments or musical education in general.

Talking about electric guitar I’ve noticed that many times what the teacher who’s explaining the major scale (or any other scale) is actually doing is just showing the fingerings for that scale on the guitar, giving the idea that fingering and scale are basically expressing the same concept. For instance, did it ever occurred to you to see someone showing the shapes for one scale with a bunch of different shapes (with the CAGED system for instance) but always starting from the lowest note available? Maybe you’ve asked to yourself: “are these really the same scale? There’s something funky going on!”.

You’re right, they’re not the same.

Let’s take this example:

there’s no doubt that all the notes above are in the scale of C major, but if we play them this way they won’t sound as the same scale and definitely they won’t sound as C major!

So the main point (which should be implied but not always is) is: if you want to play any C-scale please start and end on C!

When I show the major scale to someone who’s just starting to play guitar I find   very useful to play it on a single string. This way even students of a very young age are able to understand visually how a major scale is built, that is with a specific order of tones and semitones.

This way it will be also easier to introduce the concept of transposition later on, without complex or abstract explanations, just by playing the same frets on a different string.

Knowing a scale on a single string is also very useful for non-beginners, for example if you have to play a chord-melody.

Since the study of guitar has a strong “visual” component (that is, we have to thing of chord and scales shapes) but at the same time a note can be played in many different places around the neck, it’s essential to develop an organized method for learning different fingerings, while always listening and reproducing the sounds with the voice (yes, you have to sing) so that the work on the instrument isn’t purely mechanical.

Once getting acquainted with the scale on one string, the following step is for me to “compact” the notes in the same position so they can all be played without moving the left hand from its place.

I usually start with this shape:

keeping it in a single octave. (Squares indicates the Tonic note, black dots are the notes of the Tonic triad and white dots the other notes of the scale)

This shape can be moved to any set of three adjacent strings, starting from the sixth, fifth, fourth or third: in the first two cases they remain exactly the same, while when placing the Tonic on the fourth or third string the shapes slightly differ because of the standard tuning of the guitar.

Anyway the idea of having a set of three strings with 2-3-3 notes is mantained.

For practical purpose I refer now to C major, building the four shapes with the Tonic before the twelve fret, that is:

It is possible to go further up on the neck starting from C on the seventeenth fret of the third string, on the fifteenth of the fifth and eventually (if you dare and your guitar allows it) on the twentieth of the sixth string; the last two shapes start from C on the third space of the staff just like the ones indicated before with “upper octave”, while the one from the seventeenth fret of the third string goes up another octave. I’m not considering them here because since I’m simply talking about shapes I see them as a repetition of the formers.

Now, before learning more shapes it’s important to be able to use the ones we already know, which already allows us to do many things considering it embraces two whole octaves, in a musical way.

Choosing a fingering instead of another can change our playing because it changes how notes are grouped and it could lead us to the repetition of a particular model we are most comfortable with, rather than focusing on musical ideas (that’s why I prefer starting with fingerings based on the same shape, this way beginning right away to move the scale around the neck but still maintaining a recognizable shape). 

If we start from a musical idea before playing it on the instrument we will eventually be able to play it without being forced to use a specific fingering and without running up and down the neck struggling to find the right notes. The choice on how to organize the notes on the strings will be only aiming to interpretation. 

Guitar will finally be an instrument and not an obstacle.

But we’ll talk about this another time.

DO’S:

  • Study the scale on a single string;
  • Study the scale in position on a single octave, starting and ending on the Tonic;
  • Find the other fingerings for the same octave starting with those with the same shape (same number of notes on each string);
  • Play a melody using different scale-shapes;
  • Try all of the above in different tonalities.

DON’TS:

  • Play a scale on all strings starting and ending on notes that are not the Tonic, without recognizing the repetition in the structure of the octave;
  • Thinking that a note, chord or whatever can be only played in one position;
  • Play without listening to what you’re doing.